Tubular cubic polynomial sonotrode for green and sustainable ultrasonic welding technology
1Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.
2Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890, Pakistan.
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
4Faculty of Materials and Chemical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Pakistan.
5Polymer and Process Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890, Pakistan.
Correspondence to: Asst. Prof. Khurram Hameed Mughal, Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Lahore, 1-km Defence Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan. E-mail:
Ultrasonic Welding has emerged as a sustainable, green, and efficient manufacturing technology. This technique joins unique and advanced materials quickly, with good welding quality through high-intensity vibrations. Ultrasonic welding uses relatively low energy and incurs lower costs compared to various conventional welding systems. One of the key aspects to ensure high welding quality and strength, along with the transmission of high forces, is the design of an efficient ultrasonic sonotrode. This research study is aimed at proposing, evaluating, and testing the design of a tubular cubic polynomial sonotrode using finite element analysis. This novel ultrasonic welding sonotrode operates with low stresses and high displacement amplification. The performance of the proposed ultrasonic welding sonotrode design was compared with the commercially popular sonotrode, as well as cubic Bezier, exponential, and conical designs. This comparison was done in terms of harmonic excitation response, stresses, axial stiffness, displacement amplification, and factor of safety. The performance characteristics were also evaluated along the sonotrode length. The proposed sonotrode was found to be superior in terms of high vibration amplification and axial stiffness within safe stress limits. The benefits of the flexible design as per requirement to attain a higher displacement amplitude at the output end; consequently, lower welding forces were also realized. The proposed design is an improvement towards an efficient and green manufacturing technology involving reduced cost, energy consumption, use of consumables, effort, waste generation, and harm to the environment.
Modern manufacturing has undergone major changes across the four industrial revolutions. These changes started with the use of steam engines and have been followed by the recent emergence of Industry 4.0 technologies such as additive manufacturing, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and mass customization in manufacturing. The focus has also shifted towards sustainability and the reduction in consumption. New smart materials having advanced manufacturing and process capabilities are being developed. The properties such as brittleness, ductility, strength-to-weight ratio, thermal insulation, heat dissipation, and operating life are being investigated for manufacturability. Ultrasonic welding has evolved as a new technology that has the ability to bond numerous materials efficiently and reliably, solving multiple problems in manufacturing. Ultrasonic welding works on the principle of generating vibrations that have high frequencies equal to or above 20 kHz and displacement amplitude of at least 5 µm[1-7].
Ultrasonic welding has a number of advantages, such as the ability to weld advanced materials quickly and efficiently at lower cost and using lower energy. It can realize the welding between similar and dissimilar materials such as metals, inorganic materials, and composite materials. It is a clean technology without any emission of sparks, dust, and fumes. It also involves minimal usage of consumables with less waste, making it an environmentally friendly, sustainable, and green manufacturing technique[1-3,5,6]. Ultrasonic welding of carbon fiber (CF)/PPS composites provided 15% higher lap shear strength (LSS) compared to resistance welding. Ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic composites attained 3.83 % and 2.53 % higher LSS of welded joints compared to induction welding and resistance welding, respectively. The electrochemical performance of injection-molded microfluidic chips bonded by ultrasonic welding was also found to be significantly superior compared to the ones obtained using thermal bonding. Ultrasonic welding of
The working principle of ultrasonic welding is based on the high-frequency vibrations that are induced in sonotrodes through ultrasonic transducers and generators. The advanced materials are welded together at the desired surfaces using the effects of high-intensity vibrations and static pressure on the workpiece. The basic components of the ultrasonic welding machine consist of generators, transducers, boosters, and sonotrodes [Figure 1]. The working of the generator results in the conversion of a low-frequency electrical input (50-60 Hz) to a higher-frequency output (≥ 20 kHz). This high-frequency electrical output from the generator is passed on to the ultrasonic transducer, which converts it into the mechanical vibrations. However, the displacement amplitude at the transducer end is low and not sufficient for an effective welding operation. These mechanical vibrations are enhanced to the appropriate amplitude by an ultrasonic sonotrode. This sonotrode is placed at the output end of the ultrasonic welding system. A booster can be placed as an additional unit between the transducer and sonotrode to further enhance the displacement amplitude. Various research works highlighted the sonotrode as an important component of the ultrasonic welding system, which increases the vibration amplitude for the effective welding of advanced materials[4,13].
A number of studies have focused on the improvement of the design of an ultrasonic sonotrode, highlighting various profiles and methods for the performance improvement. Amin et al. studied the sonotrode design optimization with the inclusion of a cylindrical portion at the lower part of the sonotrode profile using finite element analysis (FEA). Wang et al. designed and developed a new sonotrode based on a cubic Bezier curve. They compared its performance with the stepped and the catenoidal sonotrodes in terms of stresses and magnification factors. They used the finite element method to design the sonotrode and incorporated a genetic algorithm for its optimization. Nguyen et al. designed and optimized a
The investigations conducted by various researchers show the potential for developing new designs of ultrasonic sonotrodes for high displacement amplification and extended operating life. Out of the various designs, it has been noted that the stepped and the 3rd order Bezier sonotrodes have the ability to attain high displacement amplification and better welding attributes. The stepped sonotrode is liable for early failure due to greater stress concentrations at the transition section. On the other hand, the Bezier sonotrode design is complex and requires a time-consuming optimization for achieving higher displacement amplification. It is desired to reduce the design complexity and optimization time and develop a solution for effective ultrasonic sonotrode design for good welding performance. During the study of the relevant literature, it was observed that the tubular cubic polynomial sonotrode profile for the ultrasonic welding application has never been tested for an axial modal frequency less than the transducer operating frequency (ωn < ω). The novelty of the manuscript pertains to the integration of the cubic polynomial sonotrode with a commercially available transducer to evaluate the harmonic excitation response of the ultrasonic welding tool for frequency ratios greater than one (ω/ωn > 1). It also proposes a method to enhance the vibration amplitude at the output end for the specified range of frequency ratios by removing the material to make it tubular, which also resulted in a lightweight structure and cost reduction. The demerits of the proposed sonotrode design pertain to the unavailability of the analytical solution and difficulty in precision manufacturing. Hence, the objective of this research was to design and propose an ultrasonic welding sonotrode to attain the greatest displacement amplification within safe stress limits for ω/ωn > 1.
The finite element method was applied to compute the relevant modal frequency, displacement amplification, and stresses using the FEA software ANSYS. A comparative study of the displacement amplifications, stresses, and factors of safety among various sonotrode designs has been performed. The comparison provides robustness, reliability, and validity to the findings of the present research.
During ultrasonic welding, a high displacement amplification at the output end is an essential pre-requisite, along with reasonable stress levels and factors of safety. This is achieved through an efficient ultrasonic welding sonotrode design that is quite challenging and is dependent on the transducer and the required displacement amplification[4,12,13,16,19].
Mughal et al. developed the generalized equation (1) for the sonotrode design that is dependent on the end diameters D1 & D2 and length L. Figure 2A-D shows the commercially available sonotrode designs, which were compared with the proposed tubular cubic polynomial sonotrode [Figure 2E]. Their performance was analyzed for the frequency ratio greater than one using FEA. The sonotrode length was set to L = 114 mm, with the rear and front-end diameters set to D1 = 41 mm and D2 = 33 mm, respectively, in accordance with the commercially popular ultrasonic welding tool. The working frequency of the ultrasonic tool was set at 20 kHz. Two designs were chosen after extensive numerical computations for tubular cubic polynomial sonotrodes based on the length (l) and the diameter (d) of the tubular section. For the novel cubic polynomial sonotrode-1, l and d were set equal to 57 and 15 mm, respectively. Whereas l and d were considered 30 and 15 mm, respectively, for the novel cubic polynomial sonotrode-2. Other designs include commercially popular stepped, conical, exponential, and cubic Bezier sonotrodes.
Governing equations and finite element analysis
Due to the ductile nature of the materials of ultrasonic welding sonotrodes, the factor of safety was determined by using the material’s yield strength σY and maximum von Mises stress.
The displacement amplification attained through ultrasonic welding sonotrodes was computed from the ratio of displacement amplitude at the sonotrode output end and the transducer output displacement[4,19]. Modal analysis was performed on various sonotrode materials to determine the resonant frequency under the given operating conditions and free oscillations. This was done in order to ensure the synchronization of the integrated assembly of the transducer and the sonotrode. The geometric parameters and the material properties of the sonotrode influence its resonant frequencies and associated parameters. The vibration modes of an engineering system include longitudinal, bending, torsional, or any combination of these. This ultrasonic system under consideration vibrates axially; therefore, the longitudinal mode of vibrations and accompanying frequency were taken into account. The frequency response function was examined to discover the resonant frequencies in the range of 0-40 kHz.
For the modal analysis, free vibrations of ultrasonic sonotrode are expressed in equation (8):
Where C, M, and K, are damping, mass, and stiffness matrices, and U,
The modal characteristics of an ultrasonic welding sonotrode are determined by solving equation (10), wherein the solution will be in terms of mode shapes (Eigenvectors, φi) and associated modal frequencies (Eigenvalues,
As illustrated in Figure 2, the 3D geometry of the ultrasonic welding sonotrode was modeled using commercial CAD software (SolidWorks) and then transferred to the FEA software (ANSYS) for meshing and analysis. Tetrahedral elements were used to mesh the model because of their capability to model complicated and irregular geometries [Figure 3]. To get precise numerical results, a mesh independence analysis was performed[4,19-27]. The mesh element size was finalized to be 1 mm with 482,756 nodes and 283,397 elements because additional reductions in mesh size did not improve the results when the finite element model reached its convergence. Modal and harmonic analysis was performed as an integral aspect of the design process for ultrasonic welding sonotrodes to compute the modal frequencies, axial stiffness, displacement amplification, stresses, and factor of safety.
The fundamental goal of this study is to enable selective materials and sonotrode design to be used for green and sustainable ultrasonic welding technology and ensure a permanent process matching durable welding tools and good-strength junctions. The piezoelectric disc and rear and front metal plates of the commercial ultrasonic transducer and the sonotrode were used as the linearly elastic components. Aluminum alloy
Figure 4. Experimental step for the measurement of the vibration characteristics of an ultrasonic welding tool.
Properties of the ultrasonic transducer and sonotrode materials
|High speed steel (S)||Elastic modulus (GPa)||71|
|Stainless steel (SS)||Elastic modulus (GPa)||200|
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Finite element simulation results
The steady-state harmonic excitation response of the ultrasonic welding tool in terms of the displacement amplification was determined using FEA. In Figure 5, the displacement contour plot of the proposed ultrasonic welding sonotrode design has been presented. An input ultrasonic frequency was provided using a harmonic displacement on the input end of the sonotrode. The output end of the sonotrode was required to vibrate only in the axial direction for maximum energy utilization without any transverse movement. The maximum displacement amplification was attained at the output end of the proposed ultrasonic welding sonotrode with magnitude 8.44 µm, validating the correctness of the research methodology used. This output end displacement causes an ultrasonic movement of the sonotrode tip, which creates an ultrasonic welding frictional effect between the mating components. A gradual and smooth increase in the displacement amplitude was observed throughout the length of the sonotrode.
Figure 5. Displacement contour plot of ultrasonic welding sonotrode, along with boundary conditions.
The ultrasonic welding tool is a continuous system and has infinite vibration modes. Three basic vibration modes of ultrasonic welding tools are presented in Figure 6, which are the axial [Figure 6A], the bending [Figure 6B], and the torsional modes [Figure 6C]. All other modes are either advanced versions or combinations of these basic modes of vibrations. The bending and torsional vibrations of the sonotrode do not contribute effectively to the ultrasonic welding process. The ultrasonic transducer provides vibrations in the axial direction. Therefore, the axial mode of vibrations was searched and given preference to utilize the maximum amount of ultrasonic energy with minimum to no wastage. Additionally, no coupling of vibration modes was observed near the operating frequency of the ultrasonic welding tool. This was also validated through the frequency response function analysis of the proposed sonotrode.
Figure 7 shows a comparison between the axial stiffness of various ultrasonic welding sonotrodes under similar operating conditions. The axial stiffness of the proposed ultrasonic welding sonotrode design was found to be the greatest among all comparative sonotrode designs considered in the present work, such as cubic Bezier, stepped, exponential, and conical. This indicates that the proposed sonotrode has the capability of withstanding higher loads with the least deformation and will restore to its original position quickly when disturbed.
Axial displacement along ultrasonic welding sonotrode
The variation of axial displacement along the length for various ultrasonic welding sonotrode designs is presented in Figure 8. The ultrasonic frequency response amplitude provided by the transducer was set at
Figure 8. Variation of tool displacement along the length for various ultrasonic welding sonotrodes.
Variation of stress in ultrasonic welding sonotrode
Stress is a very important factor in predicting the failure and the operating life of the ultrasonic welding sonotrode. The variation of stress in the sonotrode design is dependent on its shape. The comparison of stresses in various ultrasonic sonotrodes for different grades of steel is presented in Figure 10. The stresses were found to be the greatest in the commercial stepped sonotrode due to an abrupt variation in the
Figure 10. Comparison of stresses for various ultrasonic welding sonotrodes. S: Steel; SS: stainless steel.
Figure 11 presents the variation of von-Mises stresses along the length of various ultrasonic welding sonotrodes. High-stress concentrations in the stepped sonotrode at the transition section can easily be observed due to an abrupt variation in the cross-sectional area, which may cause early failure. This stress concentration can be avoided by incorporating a curve in the ultrasonic welding sonotrode design. However, incorporating a curve can significantly reduce the vibration amplification as well. Therefore, a sonotrode design with the greatest vibration amplification but lower stresses than the commercial stepped design was essential for green and sustainable ultrasonic welding technology. This research fills this gap by proposing an ultrasonic welding sonotrode with the largest displacement amplification within safe stress limits for ω/ωn > 1. A gradual and smooth increase in the displacement amplitude was observed throughout the sonotrode length compared to the commercially popular stepped sonotrode.
To predict the chances of failure and operating life of the ultrasonic welding sonotrode, the factor of safety was computed using the yield strength of the sonotrode material and the von Mises stress. The comparison of the safety factor for various ultrasonic sonotrodes is presented in Figure 12. The greatest factor of safety was attained by the conical design, while the commercially popular stepped sonotrode attained the least factor of safety. However, it is important to note that the displacement amplification achieved by the conical sonotrode is the least and much lower compared to the stepped design. Therefore, there is a tradeoff between the displacement amplification and the factor of safety for the design of the ultrasonic sonotrode. Hence, an optimum sonotrode design should be preferred for high displacement amplification and the factor of safety. The proposed ultrasonic welding sonotrode delivers greater vibration amplification with reasonable stress levels and factors of safety for ω/ωn > 1.
Figure 12. Comparison of factors of safety for various ultrasonic welding sonotrodes. S: Steel; SS: stainless steel.
The large displacement amplification is beneficial for the efficient and high-quality ultrasonic welding of advanced materials; therefore, the proposed novel sonotrode [Figure 2E] with a commercial transducer was found to meet the design requirements of having good acoustic performance within safe working stress limits. Satpathy et al. worked on the sonotrode design for a high magnification and, thus, better acoustic performance. A similar study by Amin et al. proposed an ultrasonic tool to have good acoustic performance in terms of high amplitude and low stress. The proposed design of ultrasonic welding sonotrode provided high displacement amplification with low stress; therefore, it was found to meet the design requirements of having good acoustic performance within safe working stress limits. It was found suitable for the ultrasonic welding applications for advanced materials with performance better than the commercially popular stepped design and cubic Bezier sonotrode, along with the flexibility in performance. The achievement of a higher amplitude, with less design and manufacturing effort, would help enhance the welding attributes, i.e., bonding strength and welding quality and efficiency, that would result in minimalizing wastes and realizing an energy-efficient, clean, and sustainable environment. Finally, the low stresses in the proposed ultrasonic welding tool would cause a high factor of safety and, thus, longevity, which makes the proposed sonotrode a cost-effective design product.
In this research work, the performance of a novel tubular cubic polynomial ultrasonic welding sonotrode was evaluated and compared with the other sonotrode designs for a frequency ratio greater than one. The harmonic excitation response was analyzed in terms of stress, displacement amplification, axial stiffness, and factor of safety under similar operating conditions using FEA. The main contribution of this research is the design of a low-cost and lightweight ultrasonic welding sonotrode with high vibration amplification within safe stress limits. It would cause reduced welding forces, time, interface temperature, consumption of energy, and material, along with enhanced bonding strength, welding quality, and efficiency. The dynamic performance of the proposed sonotrode was found to be exceptionally suitable to be used in green and sustainable ultrasonic welding technology.
For a high displacement amplification, low stresses, and better welding quality, the performance of the proposed ultrasonic sonotrode was found to be better than the commercially popular stepped, cubic Bezier, exponential, and conical sonotrodes. This is due to the closeness of its axial modal frequency with the operating frequency of the transducer. The axial stiffness of the proposed ultrasonic welding sonotrode was found to be the greatest, ensuring high resistance to applied loads and quick recovery after disturbance.
The stresses in the conical sonotrode were found to be the least with a high factor of safety; however, the amplification factor in the proposed design was found to be the greatest. The novel proposed design can be used where the transmission of high forces, pressures, and energy is required. The bonding strength and the weld quality typically improve as a result of enhanced vibration amplitude at the output end.
The future direction in which the research can be pursued includes the addition of helical slots to the suggested sonotrode design to boost its performance and create longitudinal-torsional coupled vibrations for improved ultrasonic welding attributes. The ultrasonic welding sonotrode may be vulnerable to a substantial rise in thermal and stress levels. This is a result of cyclic loading when used for extended periods of time with high vibration amplitudes. Future research might look at the temperature and endurance characteristics of the proposed ultrasonic welding sonotrodes.
Writing-original draft, conceptualization, methodology, data analysis, data acquisition, interpretation and validation, and technical support: Mughal KH
Writing-original draft: Bugvi SA, Jamil MF
Technical support, supervision: Qureshi MAM, Khalid FA, Qaiser AAAvailability of data and materials
Data can be made available upon request.Financial support and sponsorship
None.Conflicts of interest
All authors declared that there are no conflicts of interest.Ethical approval and consent to participate
Not applicable.Consent for publication
© The Author(s) 2023.
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Cite This Article
Mughal KH, Bugvi SA, Jamil MF, Qureshi MAM, Khalid FA, Qaiser AA. Tubular cubic polynomial sonotrode for green and sustainable ultrasonic welding technology. Green Manuf Open 2023;1:14. http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/gmo.2023.06
Mughal KH, Bugvi SA, Jamil MF, Qureshi MAM, Khalid FA, Qaiser AA. Tubular cubic polynomial sonotrode for green and sustainable ultrasonic welding technology. Green Manufacturing Open. 2023; 1(3): 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/gmo.2023.06
Mughal, Khurram Hameed, Salman Abubakar Bugvi, Muhammad Fawad Jamil, Muhammad Asif Mahmood Qureshi, Fazal Ahmad Khalid, Asif Ali Qaiser. 2023. "Tubular cubic polynomial sonotrode for green and sustainable ultrasonic welding technology" Green Manufacturing Open. 1, no.3: 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/gmo.2023.06
Mughal, KH.; Bugvi SA.; Jamil MF.; Qureshi MAM.; Khalid FA.; Qaiser AA. Tubular cubic polynomial sonotrode for green and sustainable ultrasonic welding technology. Green. Manuf. Open. 2023, 1, 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/gmo.2023.06
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